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APA Style Guide - 7th Edition: Reference Page

Citing Artificial Intelligence (AI) Chatbots

Speak to your instructor about the use of AI, LLMs, and chatbots in your coursework, especially before citing. 

How to Cite ChatGPTAPA Style Blog

APA citation recommendation as of April 7, 2023: 

OpenAI. (2023). ChatGPT (Mar 14 version) [Large language model].

  • Parenthetical citation: (OpenAI, 2023)
  • Narrative citation: OpenAI (2023)


Does it pass the CRAAP test?:

Accuracy. Chatbot responses are prone to error.

Authority.  Language models do not appraise information; chatbot responses are 'irretrievable'. 

Currency. ChatGPT's LLM was trained on data collected prior to September 2021.

What is ChatGPT? What are large language models (LLMs)?

ChatGPT is an artificial-intelligence (AI) chatbot trained on a large language model (LLM). These models are trained to predict text based on the probability of words occurring in a sequence. Models are trained on large sets of data, not facts.


Evaluating Information

Artificial Intelligence (AI) Chatbots

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References Page Formatting

Your reference page should:

  • Begin on a new page immediately following the end of your paper
  • Have the word "References" centered on the first line of the page. Bold the word "References"
  • Have all citations listed in alphabetical order by the first word of the citations
  • Include a hanging indent for all citations (Click here for directions on creating a hanging indent in Word)
  • Contain only sources used in your paper


References - APA Style

Reference information from American Psychological Association's APA Style Webguide